Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present. If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position. Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people. They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes. When I speak of “creation,” I am referring to the inherently obvious fact that the origin of all life forms can be attributed to a creator who purposefully created them with planning and intent, and the documented fact that this occurred over the course of a week’s time several thousand years ago.
Evolved in Africa, now worldwide When Lived: About , years ago to present The species that you and all other living human beings on this planet belong to is Homo sapiens. During a time of dramatic climate change , years ago, Homo sapiens evolved in Africa. Like other early humans that were living at this time, they gathered and hunted food, and evolved behaviors that helped them respond to the challenges of survival in unstable environments. Anatomically, modern humans can generally be characterized by the lighter build of their skeletons compared to earlier humans.
Articles home page Creation vs. Evolution 0. Introduction and table of contents The following is an organized presentation on the creation vs. evolution controversy.
Evolution Before about it was widely thought that distinctively hominin fossils could be identified from 14 to 12 million years ago mya. However, during the s geneticists introduced the use of molecular clocks to calculate how long species had been separated from a common ancestor. The molecular clock concept is based on an assumed regularity in the accumulation of tiny changes in the genetic codes of humans and other organisms. Use of this concept, together with a reanalysis of the fossil record, moved the estimated time of the evolutionary split between apes and human ancestors forward to as recently as about 5 mya.
Since then the molecular data and a steady trickle of new hominin fossil finds have pushed the earliest putative hominin ancestry back in time somewhat, to perhaps 8—6 mya. Possible pathways in the evolution of the human lineage. Announced in , this specimen is dated to the period between 7 and 6 mya. The distinctive mark of Hominini is generally taken to be upright land locomotion on two legs terrestrial bipedalism. The skull of S. The most remarkable aspect of this skull is the broadness and flatness of its face—something previously associated with much more recent hominins—in conjunction with a smaller, ape-sized braincase.
This specimen also has small canine teeth compared with those of apes, thus aligning it with the hominins in an important functional regard. Sahelanthropus, then, emphasizes an evolutionary pattern that seems to have been a characteristic of the tribe Hominini from the very start—a pattern that aligns it with what is observed in most other evolutionarily successful groups of mammals.
Written and designed by Roy Shepherd. Special thanks to my wonderful wife Lucinda Shepherd, friend Robert Randell and various experts for their support. Conserving Prehistoric Evidence Left: A bone block appearing to contain ichthyosaur bones and teeth has been polished rather than more respectfully prepared.
If truly all Dogs descend from the wild wolf, as is currently believed then the gene pool of the wolf is unbelievably large, encompassing the Bull Terrier, the Chihuahua, the Poodle, the Great Dane, the Rottweiler and the Beagle.
Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also. Unlike many others that preceded us, we attempted to find a clear defense of evolution for two reasons: To keep from being accused of bias.
To keep from making claims that someone could refute later.
A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection. A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it.
Fossils and other objects that accumulate between these eruptions lie between two different layers of volcanic ash and rock. An object can be given an approximate date by dating the volcanic layers occurring above and below the object.
What are two ways of dating fossils? Body fossils and trace fossils are the principal types of evidence about ancient life, and geochemical evidence has helped to decipher the evolution of life before there were organisms large enough to leave fossils. Estimating the dates of these remains is essential but difficult: Classifying ancient organisms is also difficult, as many do not fit well into the Linnean taxonomy that is commonly used for classifying living organisms, and paleontologists more often use cladistics to draw up evolutionary “family trees”.
The final quarter of the 20th century saw the development of molecular phylogenetics , which investigates how closely organisms are related by measuring how similar the DNA is in their genomes. Molecular phylogenetics has also been used to estimate the dates when species diverged, but there is controversy about the reliability of the molecular clock on which such estimates depend.
MORE How do fossils and artifacts help teach us about the past? Fossils and artifacts help teach us about the past by providing an idea on when an animal lived or how civilization lived.
The four types of fossils are: There are six ways that organisms can turn into fossils, including: More rarely, fossils have been found of softer body tissues. Bones – these fossils are the main means of learning about dinosaurs.
Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better.
My research focuses mainly on carnivore functional morphology. To date we have focused on using 3D dental microwear to evaluate the degree of hard object feeding in cats and bears. Directly linking radiocarbon ages with isotopic results permits the reconstruction of diet and ecology of the species and will help determine if they were influenced by changing climatic conditions over the past 50, years. New specimens from a single deposit from Project 23 are currently being examined.
Most of these insect species are still living today though not necessarily in southern California. They increase our understanding of the diversity of life in prehistoric Los Angeles and provide crucial information about the regional climate thousands of years ago. New findings from Project 23 continuously add to the species list and enhance our understanding of local paleoecology.
Recent studies include insect trace fossils in bone and wood, exquisite preservation of leafcutter bee nests and pupae, identification of previously undescribed plant galls and new methods to extract asphalt from insects for radiocarbon dating. I am also interested in the taphonomy of asphalt deposits and how Rancho La Brea compares to other similar deposits which preserve Pleistocene faunas, especially those in South America that also include ground sloths.
I am currently working on resolving the taxonomic status of the large La Brea horse and its population structure. For more than 30 years I have conducted regular collecting expeditions to Sonora, Mexico, in conjunction with an international team of paleontologists from the United States and Mexico. With an academic and professional background in engineering, I focus on the experimental testing and development of hypotheses using a full scale mechanical fixture and suitable prey proxies.
Since there are no extant proxies for saber-toothed cats I also study Panthera atrox and the extant Felidae for perspective. My thesis documents evidence of overpopulation preserved in modern herbivore skeletal elements- specifically features in the teeth and jaw caused by starvation.
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It is an almost complete skull and partial skeleton of an 11 to 12 year old boy. It has a brain size of cc and a height of cm 4’3″ , and is about 1. It was bipedal with long arms suitable for climbing, but had a number of humanlike traits in the skull, teeth and pelvis Stw , “Little Foot”, Australopithecus Discovered by Ron Clarke between and at Sterkfontein in South Africa. Estimated age is 3.
Over the past 20 years, paleontologists have made tremendous fossil discoveries, including fossils that mark the growth of whales, manatees, and seals from land mammals and the origins of elephants, horses, and rhinos.
A sedimentary rock is just what it sounds like: Sedimentary rocks can consist of sand, clay, chalk and fossils and as a marine geologist I find sedimentary rocks very fascinating! Some may think that sedimentary rocks is a bit dull since sedimentary rocks isn’t created by violent and exciting volcano eruptions from the Earths mantle like the igneous rocks. No, sedimentary rocks have another type of fascinating origin and every single rock tells a story if you just know how to “read” the rock!
That is one of the fascinating thing with sedimentary rocks! The other exciting part with sedimentary rocks is that they tell us about Earths history!
Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
Heating the stone tools zeroed out the electrical charge they had been carrying. That means any charge in the tools today would have been generated after they were buried, as the surrounding sediments bombarded the stone with natural radioactivity. The findings add Jebel Irhoud to a slim list of well-dated African fossil sites containing modern humans and their precursors. The find provides further evidence that at least two dramatically different species of hominins occupied Africa at the same time.
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January Fossils provide a record of the history of life. Smith is known as the Father of English Geology. Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better. Other critics, perhaps more familiar with the data, question certain aspects of the quality of the fossil record and of its dating.
These skeptics do not provide scientific evidence for their views. Current understanding of the history of life is probably close to the truth because it is based on repeated and careful testing and consideration of data. The rejection of the validity of fossils and of dating by religious fundamentalists creates a problem for them: Millions of fossils have been discovered. They cannot deny that hundreds of millions of fossils reside in display cases and drawers around the world.
Renaissance Now, let’s look at some specific examples. One type of atom that does not normally react is Neon. See the picture to the left. It already has the correct number of electrons in it’s outside electron layer so Neon does not react. Neon, along with Helium and Argon are known as non-reacting gasses because they do not need to react to be stable.
Figure 2. How relative dating of events and radiometric (numeric) dates are combined to produce a calibrated geological time scale. In this example, the data demonstrates that “fossil B time” was somewhere between and million years ago, and that “fossil A .
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way. At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column.
Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available. For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates.
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Evolution Before about it was widely thought that distinctively hominin fossils could be identified from 14 to 12 million years ago mya. However, during the s geneticists introduced the use of molecular clocks to calculate how long species had been separated from a common ancestor. The molecular clock concept is based on an assumed regularity in the accumulation of tiny changes in the genetic codes of humans and other organisms.
Use of this concept, together with a reanalysis of the fossil record, moved the estimated time of the evolutionary split between apes and human ancestors forward to as recently as about 5 mya. Since then the molecular data and a steady trickle of new hominin fossil finds have pushed the earliest putative hominin ancestry back in time somewhat, to perhaps 8—6 mya.
The two ways in which scientists can date fossils are called relative dating, and absolute dating. What are two ways geologists determine the age of fossils? Carbon dating and dating with other types of radioactive isotopes is the most common way to date an ancient object.
From the founding of the first park — Yellowstone — to today, the park service has protected and preserved large swaths of wilderness, from shorelines to mountain ranges, as well as myriad of historic sites and monuments. And today, the park system expands across 84 million acres, covering sites. Over the last century, these parks are, and have always been, vital to science by providing living laboratories for research in some of the most intact natural landscapes in the world.
In addition, because these natural sites have been managed and studied for nearly a century, there is a huge wealth of archival scientific data available to researchers working in the parks today. To find out more about the role that national parks have played in the history of science, Business Insider spoke to Timothy Watkins , a climate change science and education coordinator at the National Park Service who is working with the US Geological Survey to draw attention to the scientific value of parks.
Here are just a few national sites that have been instrumental. Simone Scully contributed to this post. Yellowstone National Park Lane V. This project has continued ever since, with scientists returning every year to count the populations of these two animals, and today, this research project is the longest continuous study of any predator-prey system in the world. Libby, who had been a part of the Manhattan Project , developed this technique of Carbon dating, also called radiocarbon dating, after World War II.